AcclimatizationThe adjustment or increase in tolerance shown by a species in the course of several generations in a changed environment.
The process of transforming an area into forest, usually when trees have not previously been grown there
Alternative tourismThe common feature of ‘alternative tourism’ is the suggestion of an attitude diametrically opposed to what is characteristically viewed as mass tourism. Alternative tourism is often presented as existing in fundamental opposition by attempting to minimize the perceived negative environmental and socio-cultural impacts of people at leisure in the promotion of radically different approaches to tourism. Examples include ecotourism, green tourism, nature-oriented tourism, soft tourism, pro-poor tourism and defensive tourism.
Areas of high conservation valueAreas
important at a regional or national level for the conservation of native fauna, flora, natural features or systems or
sites of cultural significance.
of the present situation in order to measure changes in that environment over time.
seeking excellence, keeping in touch with innovations, avoiding waste and focussing on outcomes which are in the community interest. It involves managing change and continual improvement and in this way it encompasses all levels of an organization.
on living things (different species and genetic variability) as the central point to the development of value systems as opposed to anthropocentrism
which focuses on the human and the instrumental value of nature. See also Eco centric.
BiodiversityThe variety of different species and genetic variability among individuals within each species.
variety of all life forms, the different plants, animals and microorganisms, the genes they contain and the ecosystems they form. It is usually considered at three levels: genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem diversity.
reference to buildings, dwellings, structures, utilities, roads and services which enable people to live, work and play, circulate and communicate and fulfil a wide range of functions. The built environment of a place reveals its historical and spatial development, its past and present,
and something of its social structure and conflicts.
level of visitor use an area can accommodate with high levels of satisfaction for visitors and few impacts on resources. Carrying capacity estimates are determined by many factors such as environmental, social and managerial.
Code of conductGuidelines
for appropriate social, cultural and environmentally responsible behaviour. Codes of conduct are in no way binding on the industry or the individual.
production of commodities for exchange via the market as opposed to direct use by the producer. One form of commodified leisure today can be seen in specific forms of tourism, where travel to far distant and different places is marketed as ‘paradise gained’. Tourism becomes a ‘freely chosen’ leisure activity to be consumed.
Community-based tourism (CBT)
is generally considered a privately offered set of hospitality services (and features), extended to visitors, by individuals, families or a local community. A key objective of CBT is to establish direct personal/cultural exchange between host and guest in a balanced manner that enables a mutual understanding, solidarity and equality for those involved.
protection, maintenance, management, sustainable use, restoration and enhancement of the natural environment (ANZECC Task Force on Biological Diversity, 1993). The management of human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit to present generations while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations (National Conservation Strategy for Australia).
An area of special
architectural or historic interest, the character or appearance of which it is
desirable to preserve or enhance. The designation of a Conservation Area is a
public statement of in the by the local authority; it is not in itself a proposal
for specific action or a planning technique, but defines an objective and a set
of problems for which supporting policies will be required.
that do not decay, that are non-biodegradable e.g. heavy metals and many
that are widespread or have an intangible quality about them (e.g. good weather, safety, etc.).
Consumptive Use of WaterAny
use of water which depletes the available supply.
act of redefining an issue by looking at it from a new perspective.
term is used to emphasize that marketing may be used to decrease as well as increase the number of satisfied customers. It is used to decrease numbers so that an increase in clientele satisfaction can be achieved, through preserving a higher quality experience.
conscious policy of locating or relocating some parts or the whole of an organization in outlying regions away from metropolitan areas with concomitant developments of infrastructure coupled with extensions of existing residential areas or the establishment of new towns. The policy may aim at the strengthening of specified regional administrative centres.
belief that the earth’s resources should be sustained and protected not just for human beings but also for other species. People who believe in this philosophy tend to have a life-centered approach rather than a human-centered approach to managing and sustaining the earth’s resources by working with nature, not wasting resources unnecessarily and interfering with non-human species to meet the needs of humans.
modification of the biosphere and the application of human, financial, living and non-living resources to satisfy human needs and improve the quality of human life (World Conservation Strategy). The application of human, financial and physical resources to satisfy human needs and improve the quality of life: inevitably development involves modification of the biosphere and some aspects of development may detract from the quality of life locally, regionally, nationally or globally.
on the environment as the central point to the development of value systems as opposed to anthropocentrism which focuses on the human and the instrumental value of nature. See also Bio centric.
Ecologically sustainable development
conserving and enhancing the community’s resources so that ecological processes, on which life depends, are maintained and the total quality of life, now and in the future, can be increased (Ecologically Sustainable Development Working Groups, 1991).
Ecologically sustainable tourismAn
activity that fosters environmental and cultural understanding, appreciation and conservation.
dynamic complex of plant, animal, fungal and micro-organism communities and the associated non-living environment interacting as an ecological unit.
is no general definition currently in circulation but any conception of it must involve travel to relatively undisturbed or
uncontaminated natural areas with the objective of studying, admiring and enjoying the natural environment of that area. An important point is that the person who practices ecotourism has the opportunity of immersing him or herself in nature in a way that most people cannot enjoy in their routine, urban
As there is no strict consensus on a specific definition of ecotourism it had been suggested that it also is responsible travel that conserves natural environments and sustains the well-being of local people.
Fauna and flora likely to become extinct due to direct exploitation by humans, intrusion into highly specialized habitats, threats from other species, interruption of the food chain, pollution or a combination of such factors.
defined as tourism which recognizes that each individual locality or community has its special character, and that particular character or identity may well constitute its major attractiveness to tourists.
aspects of the surroundings of human beings as individuals or in social groups (Commonwealth Environmental Protection [OP] Amendment no. 12,
recognized field of specialization in economic science. Environmental economics examines the costs and benefits of pollution control, and protection of the environment.
concept ranging from media coverage of environmental issues to formal environmental education, its aims ranging from raising awareness to formal training.
Environmental impact assessment (EIA)
method of analysis which attempts to predict the likely repercussions of a proposed major development upon the social and physical environment of the surrounding area.
who are primarily concerned with preventing pollution and degradation of the air, water and soil. See Conservationists.
Ethic of ‘Nature’Holds
that non-human entities are of equal value with the human species. It is broadly intrinsic and eco centric.
Ethic of ‘Use’
is the normative or dominant mode of how human beings relate to nature: where nature is viewed predominantly as a set of resources which humanity is free to employ for its own distinct ends. It is an
instrumental and anthropocentric view.
we believe to be right or wrong behaviour
plant association, predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation which
occupies an extensive area of land. Covers more than 2,82,840 sq. mls. In
India, 22.3 % of total land area (world average 27.6percent). Broadly
classified into types; tropical wet evergreen, tropical moist deciduous forest,
tropical dry deciduous, tropical thorn, subtropical pine, moist temperature,
to the increase in temperature of the earth’s lower atmosphere and oceans in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. In recent years scientists all over the world have noticed a steady and slight increase
in temperatures of 0.6 degrees since 1900. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change indicates that observed increases in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-twentieth century is very likely due to man-made greenhouse gas concentrations. Scientists are predicting that if greenhouse causing gases are not reduced then average worldwide temperatures could increase by 5 C by 2100. Increases in global temperatures will cause sea levels to rise and there will be an increase in severe weather events such as droughts, floods and storms. This will dramatically affect agricultural yields, lead to glacier retreats, species extinction and increase the range of diseases such as malaria (Porteous, 2000).
buildings or permanent installations associated with a site. Infrastructure for ecotourism is often developed in protected areas and usually involves a scaled down or minimal approach to physical development and change. Infrastructure such as boardwalks and viewing platforms can be used by resource managers to provide for visitor access to ecotourism destinations, while at the same time assisting the management of environmental impacts and the physical protection of natural resources.
process which takes into account the social and cultural priorities of host communities to shape tourism into a form
appropriate for each locality.
to a concept that the present generation should ensure that the health, diversity and productivity of the environment are maintained or enhanced for the benefit of future generations.
Internalization of environmental costs
of environmental costs involves the creation of economic environments so that social and private views of economic efficiency coincide. It is concerned with structures, reporting mechanisms and tools to achieve this end.
educational activity which aims to reveal meanings and relationships
through the use of original objects, first-hand experience and illustrative media, rather than simply by communicating factual information.
that exists in its own right, for its own sake.
Land use zoningLand
use zoning divides sections of land into areas based on their sensitivity and conservation values.
Limits of acceptable change (LAC)
model used to help establish the maximum ‘damage’ level for a resource that society is prepared to accept as custodian
of resources for both present and future generations and to define the maximum level of use consistent with that damage level (RAC Coastal Zone Inquiry Information Paper no. 8, 1993).
concept of local community concerns a particularly constituted set of social relationships based on something which the
individuals have in common – usually a common sense of identity
of managing public land such as a national forest so it is used for a variety of purposes, such as timbering, mining, recreation, grazing, wildlife preservation, and soil and water conservation.
in, or formed by nature, non-urban; also incorporates cultural aspects.
in Article 2 of the International Convention on Biological Diversity as a geographically defined area which is designated or regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation. Protected area system characteristics are adequacy – the ability of the reserve to maintain the ecological viability and integrity of populations, species and communities; comprehensiveness – the degree to which the full range of ecological communities and their biological diversity are incorporated within reserves; representativeness – the extent to which areas selected for inclusion in the national reserve system are capable of reflecting the known biological
diversity and ecological patterns and processes of the ecological community or ecosystem concerned.
Social impact assessment (SIA)
assessment of the impact on people and society of major development projects: social impact assessment is often a weak point in environmental impact assessments. Social impacts are defined as those changes in social relations between members of a community, society or institution, resulting from external change.
dynamic and issue-orientated process to help the individual/organization to take control of significant and desirable potential futures. Strategic planning is the process of deciding what the future of the operation should be, and what strategies should be followed in order to make that future happen.
is advanced through the magical transmutation of the term ‘ecological sustainable development’ into ‘economically sustainable
development’ through the substitution of the letter E in the acronym ‘ESD’. It is an indication of the latitude with which the concept of sustainability can be interpreted. Thus, the concept of sustainability is both contested and deployed, often, for profoundly different reasons.
to be carried out without damaging the long-term health and integrity of natural and cultural environments.
by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) in 1987 as ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’. Environmental protection and management is central to sustainable development.
collection of all collaborating firms and organizations which perform specific activities directed at satisfying leisure, pleasure and recreational needs (Stear et al., 1988: 1)
visitors traveling for whatever purpose involving at least an overnight stay 40 kilometres from their usual place of residence (World Tourism Organization).
Visitor activity management process (VAMP)
visitor activity management process relates to interpretation and visitor services. This framework involves the development of activity profiles which connect activities with the social and demographic characteristics of the participants, the activity setting requirements and trends affecting the activity. The VAMP framework is designed to operate in parallel with the natural resource management process.
tourism emphasizes positive interactions between tourists and local communities based on travellers visiting a destination and taking part in some form of project that makes a positive difference to social, economic and/or environmental conditions. Projects are commonly nature based, people-based or involve the restoration of buildings and artefacts.
Land that, together with its plant and animal communities, is in a state that has not been substantially modified by and is remote from the influences of European settlement or is capable of being restored to such a state, and is of sufficient size to make its maintenance in such a state feasible. A wilderness area is a large, substantially unmodified natural area (or capable of being restored to such a state). Such areas are managed to protect or enhance this relatively natural state, and also to provide opportunities for self-reliant recreation in a relatively unmodified natural environment.
Zone of opportunityA
geographic area that ideally encompasses an endemic core resource, as well as