AcclimatizationThe adjustment or increase in tolerance shown by a species in the course of several generations in a changed environment.

Advanced ecotourism

Advanced ecotourism is an award or form of certification given to niche tourism operators who meet particular standards in terms of ecotourism, eg advanced ecotourism is awarded to Australia's leading and most innovative ecotourism products, providing an opportunity to learn about the environment with an operator who is committed to achieving best practice when using resources wisely, contributing to the conservation of the environment and helping local communities.


Advertorial

A paid advertisement in the print media that resembles a story or editorial comment.


Afforestation

The process of transforming an area into forest, usually when trees have not previously been grown there


Allotment

 A limited number of rooms or seats available to wholesalers to free sell.


Alternative tourismThe common feature of ‘alternative tourism’ is the suggestion of an attitude diametrically opposed to what is characteristically viewed as mass tourism. Alternative tourism is often presented as existing in fundamental opposition by attempting to minimize the perceived negative environmental and socio-cultural impacts of people at leisure in the promotion of radically different approaches to tourism. Examples include ecotourism, green tourism, nature-oriented tourism, soft tourism, pro-poor tourism and defensive tourism.

ANR

Arrival notification report used by wholesale agents.


Anthropocentric Focuses

On the human and the instrumental value of nature, regards humans as the central fact of the universe and therefore interprets everything in terms of humans and their values.


APEX

Airlines advanced purchase fare.


Areas of high conservation valueAreas important at a regional or national level for the conservation of native fauna, flora, natural features or systems or sites of cultural significance.

ATLAS

 Computer/reservation system used by some travel agents.


AVIC

Accredited Visitor Information Centre. Travel information centres located at a destination to assist visitors to the area. AVICs provide information about accommodation, tours, activities, events, etc. Some AVICs also make bookings. AVICs are “accredited” centres, identified by an italic “i”.


Baseline studyAssessment of the present situation in order to measure changes in that environment over time.

Benchmarking

Comparing results with similar tourism businesses or assessing the business against an industry average.


Bioregion

Is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than an ecozone, but larger than an ecoregion and an ecosystem.


Block booking

 Hotel rooms held without deposit for regular group travel.


Booking

Term used to refer to a completed sale by a destination, convention centre, facility, hotel or supplier (that is, convention, meeting, trade show or group business booking).


Canopy walkway

A constructed bridge walkway through the tree tops of a forest.


Carbon Footprint

The total amount of greenhouse gases produced to directly and indirectly support human activities, usually expressed in equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO2).


Carbon offset

Any trading system designed to offset carbon emissions from one activity (such as burning fossil fuels in manufacturing, driving or flying) with another (such as installing more efficient technologies, planting carbon reducing plants or establishing contracts with others not to partake in carbon releasing activities) (Dictionary of Sustainable Management, 2008).


Carrying capacityThe level of visitor use an area can accommodate with high levels of satisfaction for visitors and few impacts on resources. Carrying capacity estimates are determined by many factors such as environmental, social and managerial.

Charter group

Group travel, in which a previously organised group travels together usually on a customized itinerary.


Code of conductGuidelines for appropriate social, cultural and environmentally responsible behaviour. Codes of conduct are in no way binding on the industry or the individual.

Commissions

A percentage of the total product cost paid to travel agents and other travel product distributors for selling the product to the consumer. Travel agents usually receive an amount averaging no less than 10% of the retail price. Wholesalers or inbound tour operators usually receive 20–30% of the advertised price. Commission levels for online travel agencies vary.


Commodification
The production of commodities for exchange via the market as opposed to direct use by the producer. One form of commodified leisure today can be seen in specific forms of tourism, where travel to far distant and different places is marketed as ‘paradise gained’. Tourism becomes a ‘freely chosen’ leisure activity to be consumed.

Community

 See Local community.


Community-based tourism (CBT)
CBT is generally considered a privately offered set of hospitality services (and features), extended to visitors, by individuals, families or a local community. A key objective of CBT is to establish direct personal/cultural exchange between host and guest in a balanced manner that enables a mutual understanding, solidarity and equality for those involved.

Complimentary

 No charge is made for the item or service offered.


Conservation
The protection, maintenance, management, sustainable use, restoration and enhancement of the natural environment (ANZECC Task Force on Biological Diversity, 1993). The management of human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit to present generations while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations (National Conservation Strategy for Australia).

Conservation area
An area of special architectural or historic interest, the character or appearance of which it is desirable to preserve or enhance. The designation of a Conservation Area is a public statement of in the by the local authority; it is not in itself a proposal for specific action or a planning technique, but defines an objective and a set of problems for which supporting policies will be required.

Conservation enterprises

Income generating activities that focus on conserving natural resources and ecosystems.


Conservation Pollutants
Pollutants that do not decay, that are non-biodegradable e.g. heavy metals and many pesticides.

Conservationists

Conservation-reliant species

Are animal or plant species that require continuing species-specific wildlife management intervention such as predator control, habitat management and parasite control to survive, even when a self-sustainable recovery in population is achieved.


Constant attractionsAttributes that are widespread or have an intangible quality about them (e.g. good weather, safety, etc.). 

Consumptive Use of WaterAny use of water which depletes the available supply.

Creative thinkingThe act of redefining an issue by looking at it from a new perspective.

De marketing
The term is used to emphasize that marketing may be used to decrease as well as increase the number of satisfied customers. It is used to decrease numbers so that an increase in clientele satisfaction can be achieved, through preserving a higher quality experience.

Decentralization
A conscious policy of locating or relocating some parts or the whole of an organization in outlying regions away from metropolitan areas with concomitant developments of infrastructure coupled with extensions of existing residential areas or the establishment of new towns. The policy may aim at the strengthening of specified regional administrative centres.

Deep ecology
The belief that the earth’s resources should be sustained and protected not just for human beings but also for other species. People who believe in this philosophy tend to have a life-centered approach rather than a human-centered approach to managing and sustaining the earth’s resources by working with nature, not wasting resources unnecessarily and interfering with non-human species to meet the needs of humans.

Deep ecology

The belief that the earth’s resources should be sustained and protected not just for human beings but also for other species. 


Destination marketing

Advertising and promotions, aimed at consumer and trade, designed to build awareness and desire to travel to a particular location.


Development
The modification of the biosphere and the application of human, financial, living and non-living resources to satisfy human needs and improve the quality of human life (World Conservation Strategy). The application of human, financial and physical resources to satisfy human needs and improve the quality of life: inevitably development involves modification of the biosphere and some aspects of development may detract from the quality of life locally, regionally, nationally or globally.

Discounted fare

Negotiated air fare for convention, trade show, meeting, group or corporate travel.


Dwell time

The length of time a visitor spends at an attraction or destination. Dwell time is often taken into consideration when setting admission fees as a way of ensuring perceived value for money.


Eco centrism
Focuses on the environment as the central point to the development of value systems as opposed to anthropocentrism which focuses on the human and the instrumental value of nature. See also Bio centric.

Ecologically sustainable development
Using, conserving and enhancing the community’s resources so that ecological processes, on which life depends, are maintained and the total quality of life, now and in the future, can be increased (Ecologically Sustainable Development Working Groups, 1991).

Ecologically sustainable tourismAn activity that fosters environmental and cultural understanding, appreciation and conservation.

EcosystemA dynamic complex of plant, animal, fungal and micro-organism communities and the associated non-living environment interacting as an ecological unit.

Ecotour Operators

Tour operators specializing to cater ecotours collaborating with local people focused on local nature and culture based tourism.


Ecotourism
There is no general definition currently in circulation but any conception of it must involve travel to relatively undisturbed or uncontaminated natural areas with the objective of studying, admiring and enjoying the natural environment of that area. An important point is that the person who  practices ecotourism has the opportunity of immersing him or herself in nature in a way that most people cannot enjoy in their routine, urban existences.
        As there is no strict consensus on a specific definition of ecotourism it had been suggested that it also is responsible travel that conserves natural environments and sustains the well-being of local people.

Ecotourism activities

Activities included in a tour that are designed to entertain clients and are coordinated by a professional guide or interpreter. Over 80 activities have been listed for ecotourism, such as birdwatching, hiking, diving, kayaking, participating in cultural events, photography, and mountaineering.


Ecotourism assets

Natural and Cultural features that attract visitors, such as landscapes, endemic flora and fauna, local agricultural products, local culture including festivals, local folktales, history, historical monuments and heritage sites.


Ecotourism Products

A combination of activities and services which are sold and managed through qualified eco tour operators including local communities or individuals.


Ecotourism resources

Natural and cultural features that attract visitors, such as landscapes, endemic or rare flora and fauna, cultural festivals, and historical monuments.


Ecotourism Services

Tourism services such as transportation, food, lodging, guiding and interpretation services which cause minimal damage to the biological and cultural environments and promote a better understanding of the natural and cultural history of an area.


Ecozone

Is the broadest bio geographic division of the Earth's land surface, based on distributional patterns of terrestrial organisms.


Endangered species
Fauna and flora likely to become extinct due to direct exploitation by humans, intrusion into highly specialized habitats, threats from other species, interruption of the food chain, pollution or a combination of such factors.

Endemic tourism
Broadly defined as tourism which recognizes that each individual locality or community has its special character, and that particular character or identity may well constitute its major attractiveness to tourists.

Endemism

 The level of species that occur naturally only in a specific region or site.


EnvironmentAll aspects of the surroundings of human beings as individuals or in social groups (Commonwealth Environmental Protection [OP] Amendment no. 12, 1967).

Environmental degradation

Is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems and the extinction of wildlife. It is defined as any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable.


Environmental economics
A recognized field of specialization in economic science. Environmental economics examines the costs and benefits of pollution control, and protection of the environment.

Environmental education
A concept ranging from media coverage of environmental issues to formal environmental education, its aims ranging from raising awareness to formal training.

Environmental impact assessment (EIA)
A method of analysis which attempts to predict the likely repercussions of a proposed major development upon the social and physical environment of the surrounding area.

EnvironmentalistsPeople who are primarily concerned with preventing pollution and degradation of the air, water and soil. See Conservationists.

ETA

Estimated time of arrival.


ETD

Estimated time of departure.


Ethic of ‘Nature’Holds that non-human entities are of equal value with the human species. It is broadly intrinsic and eco centric.  

Ethic of ‘Use’
This is the normative or dominant mode of how human beings relate to nature: where nature is viewed predominantly as a set of resources which humanity is free to employ for its own distinct ends. It is an instrumental and anthropocentric view.

EthicsWhat we believe to be right or wrong behaviour

Famils

Familiarisation tours. Organised free trips for travel agents, tour wholesalers, inbound tour operators, journalists or other members of the travel trade for educating and “familiarising” them with tourism destinations and products. By seeing the destinations to which they are sending travellers, the travel trade is better prepared to answer customer questions and promote travel to the location. In the case of journalists, the famil should result in free publicity coverage.


FIT

Free Independent Traveller. These travelers travel independently, not in a group.


Fly/drive

A package tour concept that includes a minimum of round-trip or one-way air travel and rental car to the destination.


Forest
A plant association, predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation which occupies an extensive area of land. Covers more than 2,82,840 sq. mls. In India, 22.3 % of total land area (world average 27.6percent). Broadly classified into types; tropical wet evergreen, tropical moist deciduous forest, tropical dry deciduous, tropical thorn, subtropical pine, moist temperature, and alpine.

Forestation

Afforestation


Galileo

Airline reservation system.


Gateway/gateway city

A major airport, rail or bus centre through which tourists and travellers enter from outside the region.


Global warming
Refers to the increase in temperature of the earth’s lower atmosphere and oceans in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. In recent years scientists all over the world have noticed a steady and slight increase in temperatures of 0.6 degrees since 1900. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change indicates that observed increases in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-twentieth century is very likely due to man-made greenhouse gas concentrations. Scientists are predicting that if greenhouse causing gases are not reduced then average worldwide temperatures could increase by 5 C by 2100. Increases in global temperatures will cause sea levels to rise and there will be an increase in severe weather events such as droughts, floods and storms. This will dramatically affect agricultural yields, lead to glacier retreats, species extinction and increase the range of diseases such as malaria (Porteous, 2000).

Green tourism

A concept that encourages development, usually in rural areas, that has regard to and respects the landscape of the area including its wildlife.


Greenhouse Gas (GHG)

Is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. 


Gross rate

Same as rack or retail rate. The rate quoted to the general public/customer on your webpage and on any promotional material that is targeting the customer directly. The retail rate is the amount the customer pays and should be consistent across the entire distribution network.


Heritage site

A place that capitalizes on its connection with heritage.


High season

The time of year when tourist activity and rates charged are generally at their highest.


Icon

 A facility or landmark which is visually synonymous with a destination.


Incentive travel

The term used for travel offered by corporations as a reward for top performance by staff or by distributors/clients. Also the term used for the business that develops, markets and operates these programs.


Infrastructure
The buildings or permanent installations associated with a site. Infrastructure for ecotourism is often developed in protected areas and usually involves a scaled down or minimal approach to physical development and change. Infrastructure such as boardwalks and viewing platforms can be used by resource managers to provide for visitor access to ecotourism destinations, while at the same time assisting the management of environmental impacts and the physical protection of natural resources.

Integrated planningPlanning process which takes into account the social and cultural priorities of host communities to shape tourism into a form appropriate for each locality.

Intergenerational equity
Refers to a concept that the present generation should ensure that the health, diversity and productivity of the environment are maintained or enhanced for the benefit of future generations.

Internalization of environmental costs
Internalization of environmental costs involves the creation of economic environments so that social and private views of economic efficiency coincide. It is concerned with structures, reporting mechanisms and tools to achieve this end.

Interpretation
An educational activity which aims to reveal meanings and relationships
through the use of original objects, first-hand experience and illustrative media, rather than simply by communicating factual information.

Intrinsic valueValue that exists in its own right, for its own sake.

Land use zoningLand use zoning divides sections of land into areas based on their sensitivity and conservation values.

Limits of acceptable change (LAC)

 A model used to help establish the maximum ‘damage’ level for a resource that society is prepared to accept as custodian of resources for both present and future generations and to define the maximum level of use consistent with that damage level (RAC Coastal Zone Inquiry Information Paper no. 8, 1993).


Local community
The concept of local community concerns a particularly constituted set of social relationships based on something which the individuals have in common – usually a common sense of identity

Low season

The time of year when tourist activity and rates are at their lowest.


LTA

Local tourist association.


Multiple use
Principle of managing public land such as a national forest so it is used for a variety of purposes, such as timbering, mining, recreation, grazing, wildlife preservation, and soil and water conservation.

Natural

Existing in, or formed by nature, non-urban; also incorporates cultural aspects.


Nature reserves

An area of land managed so as to preserve its flora, fauna, and physical features.


NP/WS

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.


Package

A fixed price saleable travel product that offers a mix of elements such as transportation, accommodation, restaurants, entertainment, cultural activities, sightseeing and car rental. Packages make it easy for a traveller to buy and enjoy a destination or several destinations. 


Pre- and Post-convention tours

Packages that are specifically designed for attendees of a particular convention or meeting. 


Protected areas
Defined in Article 2 of the International Convention on Biological Diversity as a geographically defined area which is designated or regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation. Protected area system characteristics are adequacy – the ability of the reserve to maintain the ecological viability and integrity of populations, species and communities; comprehensiveness – the degree to which the full range of ecological communities and their biological diversity are incorporated within reserves; representativeness – the extent to which areas selected for inclusion in the national reserve system are capable of reflecting the known biological diversity and ecological patterns and processes of the ecological community or ecosystem concerned.

Providers

 Suppliers of tourist services and products.


Responsible tourism

A type of tourism which is practised by tourists who make responsible choices when choosing their holidays. These choices reflect responsible attitudes to the limiting of the extent of the sociological and environmental impacts their holidays may cause.


Social impact assessment (SIA)
An assessment of the impact on people and society of major development projects: social impact assessment is often a weak point in environmental impact assessments. Social impacts are defined as those changes in social relations between members of a community, society or institution, resulting from external change.

Stakeholders

The individuals and organizations that are considered, consulted and potentially involved in developing policy, strategy, initiatives and decision-making.


Stakeholders

Individuals who have a vested interest in development, including community members; environmental, social, and community NGOs; natural resource, planning, and government officials; hotel owners, tour operators, guides, transportation providers, and representatives from other related services in the private sector.


Strategic planning
A dynamic and issue-orientated process to help the individual/organization to take control of significant and desirable potential futures. Strategic planning is the process of deciding what the future of the operation should be, and what strategies should be followed in order to make that future happen.

Sustainability
This is advanced through the magical transmutation of the term ‘ecological sustainable development’ into ‘economically sustainable development’ through the substitution of the letter E in the acronym ‘ESD’. It is an indication of the latitude with which the concept of sustainability can be interpreted. Thus, the concept of sustainability is both contested and deployed, often, for profoundly different reasons.

SustainableAble to be carried out without damaging the long-term health and integrity of natural and cultural environments.

Sustainable development
Defined by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) in 1987 as ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’. Environmental protection and management is central to sustainable development.

Sustainable Ecotourism Development (SED)

Development of ecotourism, which meets the needs and aspirations of the current generation without compromising the ability to meet the needs of future generations.


Tariff

Rates quoted and published by a travel industry supplier, for example, hotels, touring companies and attractions. An annual tariff is produced April to March each year for use in sales calls and at trade shows.


Tourism industry
The collection of all collaborating firms and organizations which perform specific activities directed at satisfying leisure, pleasure and recreational needs (Stear et al., 1988: 1)

TouristsAll visitors traveling for whatever purpose involving at least an overnight stay 40 kilometres from their usual place of residence (World Tourism Organization).

Trade show

Exhibition of tourism goods and services to the industry.


VIC

Visitor information centre. An information centre located at a destination to assist visitors to the area.


Visitor activity management process (VAMP)
The visitor activity management process relates to interpretation and visitor services. This framework involves the development of activity profiles which connect activities with the social and demographic characteristics of the participants, the activity setting requirements and trends affecting the activity. The VAMP framework is designed to operate in parallel with the natural resource management process.

Volunteer tourism
Volunteer tourism emphasizes positive interactions between tourists and local communities based on travellers visiting a destination and taking part in some form of project that makes a positive difference to social, economic and/or environmental conditions. Projects are commonly nature based, people-based or involve the restoration of buildings and artefacts.

Wilderness
Land that, together with its plant and animal communities, is in a state that has not been substantially modified by and is remote from the influences of European settlement or is capable of being restored to such a state, and is of sufficient size to make its maintenance in such a state feasible. A wilderness area is a large, substantially unmodified natural area (or capable of being restored to such a state). Such areas are managed to protect or enhance this relatively natural state, and also to provide opportunities for self-reliant recreation in a relatively unmodified natural environment.

Zone of opportunityA geographic area that ideally encompasses an endemic core resource, as well as particular resources/attractions.