AcclimatizationThe adjustment or increase in tolerance shown by a species in the course of several generations in a changed environment.
ecotourism is an award or form of certification given to niche tourism
operators who meet particular standards in terms of ecotourism, eg advanced
ecotourism is awarded to Australia's leading and most innovative ecotourism
products, providing an opportunity to learn about the environment with an
operator who is committed to achieving best practice when using resources
wisely, contributing to the conservation of the environment and helping local
paid advertisement in the print media that resembles a story or editorial
The process of transforming an area into forest, usually when trees have not previously been grown there
limited number of rooms or seats available to wholesalers to free sell.
Alternative tourismThe common feature of ‘alternative tourism’ is the suggestion of an attitude diametrically opposed to what is characteristically viewed as mass tourism. Alternative tourism is often presented as existing in fundamental opposition by attempting to minimize the perceived negative environmental and socio-cultural impacts of people at leisure in the promotion of radically different approaches to tourism. Examples include ecotourism, green tourism, nature-oriented tourism, soft tourism, pro-poor tourism and defensive tourism.
notification report used by wholesale agents.
On the human and the
instrumental value of nature, regards humans as the central fact of the
universe and therefore interprets everything in terms of humans and their
advanced purchase fare.
Areas of high conservation valueAreas
important at a regional or national level for the conservation of native fauna, flora, natural features or systems or
sites of cultural significance.
system used by some travel agents.
Visitor Information Centre. Travel information centres located at a destination
to assist visitors to the area. AVICs provide information about accommodation,
tours, activities, events, etc. Some AVICs also make bookings. AVICs are
“accredited” centres, identified by an italic “i”.
of the present situation in order to measure changes in that environment over time.
results with similar tourism businesses or assessing the business against an
seeking excellence, keeping in touch with innovations, avoiding waste and focussing on outcomes which are in the community interest. It involves managing change and continual improvement and in this way it encompasses all levels of an organization.
BiodiversityThe variety of different species and genetic variability among individuals within each species.
variety of all life forms, the different plants, animals and microorganisms, the genes they contain and the ecosystems they form. It is usually considered at three levels: genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem diversity.
Is an ecologically and
geographically defined area that is smaller than an ecozone, but larger than an
ecoregion and an ecosystem.
rooms held without deposit for regular group travel.
used to refer to a completed sale by a destination, convention centre,
facility, hotel or supplier (that is, convention, meeting, trade show or group
reference to buildings, dwellings, structures, utilities, roads and services which enable people to live, work and play, circulate and communicate and fulfil a wide range of functions. The built environment of a place reveals its historical and spatial development, its past and present,
and something of its social structure and conflicts.
A constructed bridge walkway through the tree tops of a forest.
Any trading system
designed to offset carbon emissions from one activity (such as burning fossil
fuels in manufacturing, driving or flying) with another (such as installing
more efficient technologies, planting carbon reducing plants or establishing
contracts with others not to partake in carbon releasing activities)
(Dictionary of Sustainable Management, 2008).
level of visitor use an area can accommodate with high levels of satisfaction for visitors and few impacts on resources. Carrying capacity estimates are determined by many factors such as environmental, social and managerial.
travel, in which a previously organised group travels together usually on a customized
Code of conductGuidelines
for appropriate social, cultural and environmentally responsible behaviour. Codes of conduct are in no way binding on the industry or the individual.
A percentage of the
total product cost paid to travel agents and other travel product distributors
for selling the product to the consumer. Travel agents usually receive an
amount averaging no less than 10% of the retail price. Wholesalers or inbound
tour operators usually receive 20–30% of the advertised price. Commission
levels for online travel agencies vary.
production of commodities for exchange via the market as opposed to direct use by the producer. One form of commodified leisure today can be seen in specific forms of tourism, where travel to far distant and different places is marketed as ‘paradise gained’. Tourism becomes a ‘freely chosen’ leisure activity to be consumed.
Community-based tourism (CBT)
is generally considered a privately offered set of hospitality services (and features), extended to visitors, by individuals, families or a local community. A key objective of CBT is to establish direct personal/cultural exchange between host and guest in a balanced manner that enables a mutual understanding, solidarity and equality for those involved.
charge is made for the item or service offered.
protection, maintenance, management, sustainable use, restoration and enhancement of the natural environment (ANZECC Task Force on Biological Diversity, 1993). The management of human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit to present generations while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations (National Conservation Strategy for Australia).
An area of special
architectural or historic interest, the character or appearance of which it is
desirable to preserve or enhance. The designation of a Conservation Area is a
public statement of in the by the local authority; it is not in itself a proposal
for specific action or a planning technique, but defines an objective and a set
of problems for which supporting policies will be required.
Income generating activities that focus on conserving natural
resources and ecosystems.
that do not decay, that are non-biodegradable e.g. heavy metals and many
Are animal or plant
species that require continuing species-specific wildlife management
intervention such as predator control, habitat management and parasite control
to survive, even when a self-sustainable recovery in population is achieved.
that are widespread or have an intangible quality about them (e.g. good weather, safety, etc.).
Consumptive Use of WaterAny
use of water which depletes the available supply.
act of redefining an issue by looking at it from a new perspective.
term is used to emphasize that marketing may be used to decrease as well as increase the number of satisfied customers. It is used to decrease numbers so that an increase in clientele satisfaction can be achieved, through preserving a higher quality experience.
conscious policy of locating or relocating some parts or the whole of an organization in outlying regions away from metropolitan areas with concomitant developments of infrastructure coupled with extensions of existing residential areas or the establishment of new towns. The policy may aim at the strengthening of specified regional administrative centres.
belief that the earth’s resources should be sustained and protected not just for human beings but also for other species. People who believe in this philosophy tend to have a life-centered approach rather than a human-centered approach to managing and sustaining the earth’s resources by working with nature, not wasting resources unnecessarily and interfering with non-human species to meet the needs of humans.
The belief that the
earth’s resources should be sustained and protected not just for human beings
but also for other species.
and promotions, aimed at consumer and trade, designed to build awareness and
desire to travel to a particular location.
modification of the biosphere and the application of human, financial, living and non-living resources to satisfy human needs and improve the quality of human life (World Conservation Strategy). The application of human, financial and physical resources to satisfy human needs and improve the quality of life: inevitably development involves modification of the biosphere and some aspects of development may detract from the quality of life locally, regionally, nationally or globally.
air fare for convention, trade show, meeting, group or corporate travel.
length of time a visitor spends at an attraction or destination. Dwell time is
often taken into consideration when setting admission fees as a way of ensuring
perceived value for money.
on the environment as the central point to the development of value systems as opposed to anthropocentrism which focuses on the human and the instrumental value of nature. See also Bio centric.
Ecologically sustainable development
conserving and enhancing the community’s resources so that ecological processes, on which life depends, are maintained and the total quality of life, now and in the future, can be increased (Ecologically Sustainable Development Working Groups, 1991).
Ecologically sustainable tourismAn
activity that fosters environmental and cultural understanding, appreciation and conservation.
dynamic complex of plant, animal, fungal and micro-organism communities and the associated non-living environment interacting as an ecological unit.
Tour operators specializing to cater ecotours collaborating with local
people focused on local nature and culture based tourism.
is no general definition currently in circulation but any conception of it must involve travel to relatively undisturbed or
uncontaminated natural areas with the objective of studying, admiring and enjoying the natural environment of that area. An important point is that the person who practices ecotourism has the opportunity of immersing him or herself in nature in a way that most people cannot enjoy in their routine, urban
As there is no strict consensus on a specific definition of ecotourism it had been suggested that it also is responsible travel that conserves natural environments and sustains the well-being of local people.
included in a tour that are designed to entertain clients and are coordinated
by a professional guide or interpreter. Over 80 activities have been listed for
ecotourism, such as birdwatching, hiking, diving, kayaking, participating in
cultural events, photography, and mountaineering.
Natural and Cultural features that attract visitors, such as landscapes,
endemic flora and fauna, local agricultural products, local culture including
festivals, local folktales, history, historical monuments and heritage sites.
A combination of
activities and services which are sold and managed through qualified eco tour
operators including local communities or individuals.
and cultural features that attract visitors, such as landscapes, endemic or
rare flora and fauna, cultural festivals, and historical monuments.
services such as transportation, food, lodging, guiding and interpretation
services which cause minimal damage to the biological and cultural environments
and promote a better understanding of the natural and cultural history of an
Is the broadest bio geographic
division of the Earth's land surface, based on distributional patterns of
Fauna and flora likely to become extinct due to direct exploitation by humans, intrusion into highly specialized habitats, threats from other species, interruption of the food chain, pollution or a combination of such factors.
defined as tourism which recognizes that each individual locality or community has its special character, and that particular character or identity may well constitute its major attractiveness to tourists.
level of species that occur naturally only in a specific region or site.
aspects of the surroundings of human beings as individuals or in social groups (Commonwealth Environmental Protection [OP] Amendment no. 12,
the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as
air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems and the extinction of
wildlife. It is defined as any change or disturbance to the environment
perceived to be deleterious or undesirable.
recognized field of specialization in economic science. Environmental economics examines the costs and benefits of pollution control, and protection of the environment.
concept ranging from media coverage of environmental issues to formal environmental education, its aims ranging from raising awareness to formal training.
Environmental impact assessment (EIA)
method of analysis which attempts to predict the likely repercussions of a proposed major development upon the social and physical environment of the surrounding area.
who are primarily concerned with preventing pollution and degradation of the air, water and soil. See Conservationists.
time of arrival.
time of departure.
Ethic of ‘Nature’Holds
that non-human entities are of equal value with the human species. It is broadly intrinsic and eco centric.
Ethic of ‘Use’
is the normative or dominant mode of how human beings relate to nature: where nature is viewed predominantly as a set of resources which humanity is free to employ for its own distinct ends. It is an
instrumental and anthropocentric view.
we believe to be right or wrong behaviour
tours. Organised free trips for
travel agents, tour wholesalers, inbound tour operators, journalists or other members
of the travel trade for educating and “familiarising” them with tourism
destinations and products. By seeing the destinations to which they are sending
travellers, the travel trade is better prepared to answer customer questions
and promote travel to the location. In the case of journalists, the famil
should result in free publicity coverage.
These travelers travel independently, not in a group.
package tour concept that includes a minimum of round-trip or one-way air
travel and rental car to the destination.
plant association, predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation which
occupies an extensive area of land. Covers more than 2,82,840 sq. mls. In
India, 22.3 % of total land area (world average 27.6percent). Broadly
classified into types; tropical wet evergreen, tropical moist deciduous forest,
tropical dry deciduous, tropical thorn, subtropical pine, moist temperature,
major airport, rail or bus centre through which tourists and travellers enter
from outside the region.
to the increase in temperature of the earth’s lower atmosphere and oceans in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. In recent years scientists all over the world have noticed a steady and slight increase
in temperatures of 0.6 degrees since 1900. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change indicates that observed increases in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-twentieth century is very likely due to man-made greenhouse gas concentrations. Scientists are predicting that if greenhouse causing gases are not reduced then average worldwide temperatures could increase by 5 C by 2100. Increases in global temperatures will cause sea levels to rise and there will be an increase in severe weather events such as droughts, floods and storms. This will dramatically affect agricultural yields, lead to glacier retreats, species extinction and increase the range of diseases such as malaria (Porteous, 2000).
A concept that encourages
development, usually in rural areas, that has regard to and respects the
landscape of the area including its wildlife.
Greenhouse Gas (GHG)
Is a gas in an atmosphere
that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This
process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary
greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide,
methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone.
as rack or retail rate. The rate quoted to the general public/customer on your
webpage and on any promotional material that is targeting the customer
directly. The retail rate is the amount the customer pays and should be
consistent across the entire distribution network.
A place that capitalizes on
its connection with heritage.
time of year when tourist activity and rates charged are generally at their
facility or landmark which is visually synonymous with a destination.
term used for travel offered by corporations as a reward for top performance by
staff or by distributors/clients. Also the term used for the business that
develops, markets and operates these programs.
buildings or permanent installations associated with a site. Infrastructure for ecotourism is often developed in protected areas and usually involves a scaled down or minimal approach to physical development and change. Infrastructure such as boardwalks and viewing platforms can be used by resource managers to provide for visitor access to ecotourism destinations, while at the same time assisting the management of environmental impacts and the physical protection of natural resources.
process which takes into account the social and cultural priorities of host communities to shape tourism into a form
appropriate for each locality.
to a concept that the present generation should ensure that the health, diversity and productivity of the environment are maintained or enhanced for the benefit of future generations.
Internalization of environmental costs
of environmental costs involves the creation of economic environments so that social and private views of economic efficiency coincide. It is concerned with structures, reporting mechanisms and tools to achieve this end.
educational activity which aims to reveal meanings and relationships
through the use of original objects, first-hand experience and illustrative media, rather than simply by communicating factual information.
that exists in its own right, for its own sake.
Land use zoningLand
use zoning divides sections of land into areas based on their sensitivity and conservation values.
Limits of acceptable change (LAC)
model used to help establish the maximum ‘damage’ level for a resource that society is prepared to accept as custodian
of resources for both present and future generations and to define the maximum level of use consistent with that damage level (RAC Coastal Zone Inquiry Information Paper no. 8, 1993).
concept of local community concerns a particularly constituted set of social relationships based on something which the
individuals have in common – usually a common sense of identity
time of year when tourist activity and rates are at their lowest.
of managing public land such as a national forest so it is used for a variety of purposes, such as timbering, mining, recreation, grazing, wildlife preservation, and soil and water conservation.
in, or formed by nature, non-urban; also incorporates cultural aspects.
An area of land managed so
as to preserve its flora, fauna, and physical features.
National Parks and Wildlife Service.
fixed price saleable travel product that offers a mix of elements such as
transportation, accommodation, restaurants, entertainment, cultural activities,
sightseeing and car rental. Packages make it easy for a traveller to buy and
enjoy a destination or several destinations.
Pre- and Post-convention tours
that are specifically designed for attendees of a particular convention or
in Article 2 of the International Convention on Biological Diversity as a geographically defined area which is designated or regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation. Protected area system characteristics are adequacy – the ability of the reserve to maintain the ecological viability and integrity of populations, species and communities; comprehensiveness – the degree to which the full range of ecological communities and their biological diversity are incorporated within reserves; representativeness – the extent to which areas selected for inclusion in the national reserve system are capable of reflecting the known biological
diversity and ecological patterns and processes of the ecological community or ecosystem concerned.
of tourist services and products.
A type of tourism which is
practised by tourists who make responsible choices when choosing their
holidays. These choices reflect responsible attitudes to the limiting of the
extent of the sociological and environmental impacts their holidays may cause.
Social impact assessment (SIA)
assessment of the impact on people and society of major development projects: social impact assessment is often a weak point in environmental impact assessments. Social impacts are defined as those changes in social relations between members of a community, society or institution, resulting from external change.
individuals and organizations that are considered, consulted and potentially
involved in developing policy, strategy, initiatives and decision-making.
Individuals who have a vested interest in development, including community
members; environmental, social, and community NGOs; natural resource, planning,
and government officials; hotel owners, tour operators, guides, transportation
providers, and representatives from other related services in the private
dynamic and issue-orientated process to help the individual/organization to take control of significant and desirable potential futures. Strategic planning is the process of deciding what the future of the operation should be, and what strategies should be followed in order to make that future happen.
is advanced through the magical transmutation of the term ‘ecological sustainable development’ into ‘economically sustainable
development’ through the substitution of the letter E in the acronym ‘ESD’. It is an indication of the latitude with which the concept of sustainability can be interpreted. Thus, the concept of sustainability is both contested and deployed, often, for profoundly different reasons.
to be carried out without damaging the long-term health and integrity of natural and cultural environments.
by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) in 1987 as ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’. Environmental protection and management is central to sustainable development.
Sustainable Ecotourism Development (SED)
Development of ecotourism, which meets the needs
and aspirations of the current generation without compromising the ability to
meet the needs of future generations.
quoted and published by a travel industry supplier, for example, hotels,
touring companies and attractions. An annual tariff is produced April to March
each year for use in sales calls and at trade shows.
collection of all collaborating firms and organizations which perform specific activities directed at satisfying leisure, pleasure and recreational needs (Stear et al., 1988: 1)
visitors traveling for whatever purpose involving at least an overnight stay 40 kilometres from their usual place of residence (World Tourism Organization).
tourism goods and services to the industry.
information centre. An information centre located at a destination to assist
visitors to the area.
Visitor activity management process (VAMP)
visitor activity management process relates to interpretation and visitor services. This framework involves the development of activity profiles which connect activities with the social and demographic characteristics of the participants, the activity setting requirements and trends affecting the activity. The VAMP framework is designed to operate in parallel with the natural resource management process.
tourism emphasizes positive interactions between tourists and local communities based on travellers visiting a destination and taking part in some form of project that makes a positive difference to social, economic and/or environmental conditions. Projects are commonly nature based, people-based or involve the restoration of buildings and artefacts.
Land that, together with its plant and animal communities, is in a state that has not been substantially modified by and is remote from the influences of European settlement or is capable of being restored to such a state, and is of sufficient size to make its maintenance in such a state feasible. A wilderness area is a large, substantially unmodified natural area (or capable of being restored to such a state). Such areas are managed to protect or enhance this relatively natural state, and also to provide opportunities for self-reliant recreation in a relatively unmodified natural environment.
Zone of opportunityA
geographic area that ideally encompasses an endemic core resource, as well as