The local population being are intricately involved with the forests for their sustenance, be it agriculture, timber, small, timber, day to day use items or medicinal plants etc. These forest products are also their main source of economy. Therefore, when the main stay of the people is dependent on forest, destruction of forests is imminent and thereby endangering many valuable species. Due to the primitive method/ practice of cultivation (i.e slash burning) the rich Biodiversity of the state is dwindling year by year.
Most of species, both flora and fauna, appears to be endangered due to heavy biotic pressure/ interference and reckless deforestation. Their details are as follows.
Dipterocarpous macrocarpous (Hollong), Shorea assamica ( Makai) , Rodhodendron Spp. , Mesua ferra (Nahar), are rare and endangered spp. Panax gensing (Gensing) is found only in Tuensang district at higher altitude. It is endangered. Aquilaria agallocha (Agar )is also a endangered species. Rare and Endangered species of Orchids available in Nagaland are as follows,
Thunia 1 spp, Arundinaria graminifolia ( Bamboo orchid), Renenthera (Red vanda), ,Rhynchostylis ( fox tail), Pleoni, Phauis (ground orchid) 2 spp, Paphiopedilum 1 spp, Cymbidium tigrinum 1 spp.
The Govt. is taking measures for propagation conservation and protection of these spp. through different afforestation schemes.
The largest Asian mammal, Elephant is endangered spp. The other endangered spps are Melurses ursinus (Sloth Bear ), Prionodon pardicolor (Spotted linsang, Tiger-civet), Panthera tigris (Tiger) , Macaca assamensis (Tailed Pig). The Gaur, or Indian Bison in habitats in Intangki National Park and Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary and other hilly areas is facing extinction from Nagaland The different Horn bills and Tortoise are also endangered
For management and preservation of wildlife in the State, the Department has a full-fledged wildlife wing under Chief Wildlife Warden, an officer of CCF rank. Wildlife Preservation Division was created during the year 1976-77 with Headquarter at Dimapur which is entrusted with following responsibilities
i. Intangki National Park 20202 ha .
ii. Zoological Park Kohima.
iii. Rangapahar Wildlife Sanctuary 470 ha.
iv. Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary 642 ha.
v. Puliebadze Wildlife Sanctuary 923 ha.
Zoological Park at Kohima
The Government has decided to shift the present Zoological Park to Dimapur at Rangapahar Wildlife Sanctuary, with a view to introduce many species of animals and birds of warm region. The present Zoological Park shall however be converted into captive breeding center for Tragopan .
Tragopan Breeding Project in London ( U. K.)
This Captive Breeding Project under the auspices of the World Pheasant Association was successful in breeding of Blythe’s Tragopan, but its quality and character have degenerated due to inbreeding. The Department is likely to send one more pair of birds to the association to minimise the risks of inbreeding, to the association in near future.
Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Park
i. The Intangki National Park covering an area of 20202 ha. has been maintained during the year. Radio Telecommunication installed during 1988-89 continued to function. The efforts to keep the park free of encroachers continued unabated.
ii. The Rangapahar Wildlife Sanctuary, Dimapur, covering an area of 470 ha. shall be converted into Deer Sanctuary in near future. The proposal is pending with the G.O.I.
iii. In addition to the above sanctuaries, the other two Wildlife Sanctuaries:-
(a) Puliebadze Wildlife Sanctuary in Kohima District covering an area of 923 ha was maintained. It is a natural habitat for Blyth’s Tragopan.
(b) Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary spread over 642 ha. was maintained