Mizoram can broadly be classified into two categories of ecosystem :-

Aquatic ecosystem

       The aquatic ecosystem has not properly studied yet in Mizoram, even the concerned department (i.e. Fisheries department) is not in a position to undertake survey or research to scientifically classify and identify the aquatic species due to lack of basic infrastructure. There are 14 major rivers mentioned below in the State, majority of which are rain fed, running in spate during the monsoon and almost dry during the summer months.

 Fourteen Major Rivers of Mizoram

Sl.No.

Name of River

Length in Km.

1

Tlawng

185

2

Tiau

159

3

Chhimtuipui (Kolodyne)

138

4

Khawthlangtuipui (Karnaphuli)

128

5

Tuichang

120

6

Tuirial

117

7

Tuichawng

107

8

Mat

90

9

Tuipui

86

10

Tuivawl

72

11

Teirei

70

12

Tuirini

59

13

Serlui

56

14

Langkaih

68

Besides these rivers, there are few wetlands, small lakes and ponds, viz. Tamdil, Palak and Rengdil.

Terrestrial ecosystem

 i) Natural forests :  Most of the forests of Mizoram are of seed origin. However, with the passage of time, these have become degraded with low stocking of economical species. These are confined to certain pockets scattered through out the State. Such forests are home to many diverse species of plants and animals. 

ii) Miscellaneous forests mixed with bamboos :  These forests are mostly open forests constituting major forest cover in the state. 

iii) Bamboo forests :  They are confined mainly to the low lying areas and non-clump forming bamboo (Melocanna sp.) dominate and jhumming is rampant in this areas. Bamboo area in Mizoram is the highest in the country with 49.1 % of the forest cover. 

iv) Man made forests :      These are forest plantations, both of government and private. They are mostly teak and are still below exploitable age. However, in some parts mature teak have been harvesting in small quantity to supplement timber requirement of the state. 

 Agricultural systems : 

        The major agricultural production of the state comes from jhumming, which is the main stay of the people of Mizoram. Paddy is the main crop under jhumming. Apart from paddy, many other crops such as maize, vegetables, spices, etc. are also grown in jhum areas. 

Land and water uses

      Management of land and forests vested with government. In District Council areas, management of land and forests vest with the District Councils. A system of grant of land passes by village councils existed earlier, and now grant of such passes vests with the Revenue Department under the control of the Deputy Commissioner. However, for jhumming under community land, the Village Council grant permit to the villagers for jhumming. Regular cadastral survey and record of rights are yet to be carried out in a systematic manner. In the absence of survey settlement, there are many unauthorized settlement and occupation both in reserved forests and unclassed forests, which need to be regularized. A proper land tenure system based on appropriate land use is absolutely essential to promote land based production activities in private, government and community sector, and this task has been carried out by the Revenue Department. So far, the Revenue Department has been undertaking cadastral land survey throughout Mizoram since 1999 and is expected to be completed in 2003. The present land use system is given at table 1.3. In regards to water use, the Public Health Engineering Department has responsibility for drinking water supply and water harvesting program has also been carried out in which 11,944 G.C.I. tanks have already been distributed to 138 villages so far, and during 2001-2002, the department is planning to distribute 446 G.C.I. tanks of 7,500 litres capacity each of 5 villages. Management of rivers is under the control of the State Environment & Forests Department.

Land use system in Mizoram

Sl.No.

Land use

1998-1999

1999-2000

1

2

3

4

Area under forest cover (ha.)

Area under jhum cultivation (Ha.)

Area under Agricultural land (Ha.)

Area under Afforestation (Ha.)

18,77,500

46,634

1,01,046

3,250

18,77,500

43,707

89,601

4,270

Source : Statistical Handbook of Mizoram, 2000.