Canopy walkway

A constructed bridge walkway through the tree tops of a forest.

Carbon Footprint

The total amount of greenhouse gases produced to directly and indirectly support human activities, usually expressed in equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO2).

Carbon offset

Any trading system designed to offset carbon emissions from one activity (such as burning fossil fuels in manufacturing, driving or flying) with another (such as installing more efficient technologies, planting carbon reducing plants or establishing contracts with others not to partake in carbon releasing activities) (Dictionary of Sustainable Management, 2008).

Carrying capacityThe level of visitor use an area can accommodate with high levels of satisfaction for visitors and few impacts on resources. Carrying capacity estimates are determined by many factors such as environmental, social and managerial.

Charter group

Group travel, in which a previously organised group travels together usually on a customized itinerary.

Code of conductGuidelines for appropriate social, cultural and environmentally responsible behaviour. Codes of conduct are in no way binding on the industry or the individual.


A percentage of the total product cost paid to travel agents and other travel product distributors for selling the product to the consumer. Travel agents usually receive an amount averaging no less than 10% of the retail price. Wholesalers or inbound tour operators usually receive 20–30% of the advertised price. Commission levels for online travel agencies vary.

The production of commodities for exchange via the market as opposed to direct use by the producer. One form of commodified leisure today can be seen in specific forms of tourism, where travel to far distant and different places is marketed as ‘paradise gained’. Tourism becomes a ‘freely chosen’ leisure activity to be consumed.


 See Local community.

Community-based tourism (CBT)
CBT is generally considered a privately offered set of hospitality services (and features), extended to visitors, by individuals, families or a local community. A key objective of CBT is to establish direct personal/cultural exchange between host and guest in a balanced manner that enables a mutual understanding, solidarity and equality for those involved.


 No charge is made for the item or service offered.

The protection, maintenance, management, sustainable use, restoration and enhancement of the natural environment (ANZECC Task Force on Biological Diversity, 1993). The management of human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit to present generations while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations (National Conservation Strategy for Australia).

Conservation area
An area of special architectural or historic interest, the character or appearance of which it is desirable to preserve or enhance. The designation of a Conservation Area is a public statement of in the by the local authority; it is not in itself a proposal for specific action or a planning technique, but defines an objective and a set of problems for which supporting policies will be required.

Conservation enterprises

Income generating activities that focus on conserving natural resources and ecosystems.

Conservation Pollutants
Pollutants that do not decay, that are non-biodegradable e.g. heavy metals and many pesticides.


Conservation-reliant species

Are animal or plant species that require continuing species-specific wildlife management intervention such as predator control, habitat management and parasite control to survive, even when a self-sustainable recovery in population is achieved.

Constant attractionsAttributes that are widespread or have an intangible quality about them (e.g. good weather, safety, etc.). 

Consumptive Use of WaterAny use of water which depletes the available supply.

Creative thinkingThe act of redefining an issue by looking at it from a new perspective.

Cultural Tourism

Cultural tourism is the subset of tourism concerned with a country or region's culture, specifically the lifestyle of the people in those geographical areas, the history of those people, their art, architecture, religion, and other elements that helped shape their way of life.